WHERE IS IT FROM?
I ended the article: “Finding the Dark Matter” with this question: where is DM from?
“There needs to be an enormous volume of DM every nanosecond to maintain the expansion of Universe. The expanding speed never ceases, gets faster and faster, demanding a growing volume of DM accordingly. But DM doesn’t reproduce itself. Universe itself has no system to fabricate more of it either.
So, DM must come from the outside of our Universe?”
It certainly does, according to the laws of physics.
Without the volume of DM pouring incessantly into the Universe, we would have a different Universe that has far weaker gravity everywhere. It doesn’t expand, and the movement inside it would be drastically decreased to near zero.
Similar to the dynamic of pumping air into a balloon, the newly arrival DM enters the Universe by pushing its way in creating all kinds of activities that affect everything from the spinning of a planet to the acceleration away of the Universe’s edge.
Actually, it’s the original causality of the movement of even the smallest particle in existence.
The Universe is full of DM. It needs its presence everywhere to create, at least, gravitation and inertia for all kinds of large and small masses, and yet, after three decades, the hunt for it has provided no positive results.
It’s about time to investigate what we have done wrong.
Currently, there are two main methods used in a few famous labs involving in the search.
THE LARGE UNDERGROUND XENON (LUX)
“The world's most advanced instrument for detecting dark matter” (Ian Sample) is The Large Underground Xenon (Lux,). Robin McKie, the Observer science editor, wrote:
Deep underground, in a defunct gold mine in South Dakota, scientists are assembling an array of odd devices: a chamber for holding tonnes of xenon gas; hundreds of light detectors, each capable of pinpointing a single photon; and a vast tank that will be filled with hundreds of gallons of ultra-pure water. The project, the LZ experiment, has a straightforward aim: it is designed to detect particles of an invisible form of matter – called dark matter – as they drift through space.
… However, many scientists believe time is running out for the hunt, which has lasted 30 years, cost millions of pounds and produced no positive results. The LZ project – which is halfway through construction – should be science’s last throw of the dice, they say. “This generation of detectors should be the last,” said astronomer Stacy McGaugh at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. “If we don’t find anything we should accept we are stuck and need to find a different explanation, perhaps by modifying our theories of gravity, to explain the phenomena we attribute to dark matter.” (Observer - 31 December 2016. Last modified on 22 February 2017)
Wanting to quit after 30 years of laboriously working with no positive results is understandable. But unable to catch something doesn’t mean that thing does not exist.
In this case, instead of doubting the DM’s existence, modifying our knowledge or theories, we should re-examine our instruments, researching methods, or our target. Probably the instrument isn’t well designed for the job, the method used by Lux’s scientists has serious flaw, or we are focusing on the WRONG TARGET.
Assuming Dark Matter’s unit is a DM particle, the Lab scientists just search for the proof of the existence of its elementary particle. That may be the problem.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists are doing a similar job, trying to detect just one special particle: Neutrino. So far, the result isn’t encouraging.
Sofia Chen describes:
“Every second of every day, trillions of tiny particles called neutrinos are raining down on your head. But unlike raindrops, hailstones, or bird poop, these elementary particles go right through your body—and through Earth’s crust, mantle, and core—at nearly the speed of light. After they sail through the entire planet, they fly silently back into the cosmos with scarcely a hello. It’s almost as if they never existed. “They’re the most mysterious type of particle we know of,” says Juan Collar, a physicist at the University of Chicago…”
“At Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, they fired a beam of neutrinos at a toaster-sized detector made of cesium iodide crystals. When the neutrino interacted with a cesium or iodine nucleus, the crystal would emit about 10 photons’ worth of dim light, cracking a window into the personality of the shyest particle…” “Collar’s group bombarded their detector with trillions of neutrinos per second, but over 15 months, they only caught a neutrino bumping against an atomic nucleus 134 times.” (Wired - 08.03.17)
Bombarding the detector with trillions of neutrinos per second, for over 15 months, resulted in only 134 hits! Catching a far more elusive particle – the assumed elementary DM particle – certainly is much more difficult. No wonder…
“The failure to even glimpse dark matter means that tentative sightings by other experiments are almost certainly false. The Lux results do not rule out the existence of dark matter, but instead narrow down the possible forms it might take.
"We saw nothing," said Richard Gaitskell, a co-spokesman for the Lux experiment at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. "We do not have a single dark matter candidate event." (Ian Sample)
It’s not only difficult; it’s actually impossible, because there is no such a particular particle that can be considered the elementary particle of DM.
Let’s figure out the other “possible forms it might take.”
To perform all the tasks waiting for it inside the Universe, A DM “molecular” has to comprise of all kinds of elementary particles floating in the most transparent, thinnest, lightest super fluid that performs swift-flowing movement, and smoothly fills all the gaps between particles.
Looking for only one kind of particle is not enough. Expecting it, like neutrino, bumps against an atomic nucleus and causes the emitting of a few photons as evidence of its existence… is another mistake.
Aside from its peculiar form, DM has occupied almost the entire Universe including every extremely small space inside every object.
When scientists install their instrument in a defunct gold mine deep underground, DM already exists in the surrounding and inside that instrument no matter where it is located. Every second of every day, zillions particles the same size or smaller than neutrino go right through the instrument, and zillion bigger ones press on the instrument creating its inertia and gravity.
Unless the detector contains some kind of material that can generate chemically reaction to the presence of DM’s liquid or particles at the contact point, it will not provide any useful evidence showing its existence.
LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC) – CERN
Originally, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) the biggest LHC on Earth, was designed to re-create a Big Bang to discover whatever happened at the very moment the Universe was born, according to Georges Lemaître ‘s theory.
In 2008, when the “protons smashing” event – hence a small Big Bang – was coming closer, a lot of people were scared to death believing that this man-made Big Bang could create a black hole that sucks the entire world into its stomach. “To many, this sounds like the plot of a disastrous science-fiction movie. It came as no surprise when two people filed a lawsuit to stop the LHC from operating, lest it produce a black hole powerful enough to destroy the world. But physicists argued that the idea was absurd and the lawsuit was rejected.” (Joel Frohlich –Quartz)
Then it turned out the world was safe. Neither Big Bang nor black hole was produced. Only the existence of a Big Bang event 13.8 billion years ago had been in doubt, and the LHC’s usefulness, the guardian angel of its existence, also being threatened.
Fortunately, four years later, in 2012, Higgs bosom came to rescue. LHC detected the long-sought God particle that, in the laymen language, helps the particles in Universe bonding together to build masses. This is a huge accomplishment that makes CERN popular, famous and apparently forever useful.
Now, CERN and many LHCs’ around the world are sharing the same target: Looking for the elementary DM particle.
Marcelo Gleiser described the tremendous difficulty of such a task:
“After the spectacular discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, a particle that theoretical physicists had conjectured existed in the mid-60s, scientists have boosted the collision energies in search of the next big thing. Expectations are extremely high that something new will pop out, even if, so far, nothing seems to be out there. Is nature beating us at this game?
One promising possibility for new physics comes from the Higgs itself. Could it actually be made of even smaller bits of matter? Many particles that once were thought to be indivisible were later found to be composed of even smaller chunks. Starting with atoms (that we now know are all made of only three particles — protons, neutrons, and electrons), protons and neutrons — and many other particles organized together under groups called baryons and mesons — were shown in the past few decades to be composed of six quarks, arranged in different combinations. Data from the highest-ever collisions are now being collected and analyzed to see if the Higgs is hiding something from us.” “We believe that dark matter is made of small particles that only (or mostly) interact with common matter through gravity. But if the collisions between protons at the LHC are powerful enough, it is possible, at least in theory, for some of the energy of the collision to turn not only into Higgs bosons and other particles, but also into dark matter particles. A theory that predicts their existence is called supersymmetry, and physicists are eagerly waiting for its signs. So far, nothing — and some say such theories are in trouble.”
No, any theory that predicts the existence of DM is not in trouble. DM itself will not fall into oblivion due to mankind’s incompetence in searching for it. Only our investigative methods need to be changed or modified.
The difficulties mentioned in Dr. Geyser’s article “At CERN, Hunting For Invisible Worlds” was not easy to overcome. We’re looking for an invisible small particle; then the smaller ones and smaller ones, one after another, continue to show up. And yet, after three decades, we haven’t reached the smallest one while we have no idea how small that smallest one is!
And if finally it would be found, it certainly isn’t the DM elementary particle. It’s only one of numerous particles that made up the non-liquid part of Dark Matter’s molecule.
Both methods seem leading to nowhere. But, I have found hope in CERN’s investigative process.
At first, it appears problematic. The underground tunnel where protons fly in opposite directions and are destined to collide is designed for small Big Bang creation, from the beginning, has nothing to do with particles finding. Since the collision causing the explosion that breaks particle requires protons fly at speeds close to the speed of light, that tremendous movement creates a peculiar environment inside the tunnel. While moving that fast, proton disturbs its surrounding and produces clashes, friction, and collisions that generate heat, energy, leading to the transformation or even destruction of particles and matters in its proximity. And protons are not the only things that move in that tunnel during the process. Particles may be destroyed. New kind of matter may be formed (anti-matter was produced faster in the lab than anywhere else.) What clear results would come out from that abnormal, chaotic environment?
But, after a thorough study of the effect of objects’ motion on the dynamic of the surrounding DM, I believe that disturbing DM violently with high velocity objects would be the best way to make it appear. My skepticism about the success of CERN is gone.
With some adjustments and modifications, CERN, in a foreseeable future, would be able to force the Dark Matter to show up for a photo-op.